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PN & PIN photodiodes     Additionally, working principle and characteristic curve of Photodiode is also explained in detail. It is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that utilizes the photo electric effect to convert light to electricity. The avalanche process means that a single electron produced by light in the un-doped region is multiplied several times by the avalanche process. absorbed by the high resistivity intrinsic p type layer where electron hole pairs are created. Working principle; Avalanche photodiode; Circuit Diagram; Applications; Advantages & disadvantages; Phototransistor vs. photodiode; What is a Photo Detector? Avalanche photo diode (not to be confused with an avalanche diode) is a kind of photo detector which can convert signals into electrical signals pioneering research work in the development of avalanche diode was done mainly in 1960’s. The avalanche photodiode possesses a similar structure to that of the PN or PIN photodiode. reverse bias mode. Relays     Photodiode is made of silicon semiconductor material which heave the energy gap 1.12 eV at room temperature. Avalanche photodiodes can be used in a number of applications to provide performance that other types of photodiode may mot be able to attain. This article covers Photodiode basics and Photodiode types including its applications and working operation. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. In this video you will get to know about Photodiode. Inductors     And in large-area detectors, the availability of scintillating fibres is again favouring the use of the photomultiplier as an alternative to the slower multi-wire proportional counter. From a functional standpoint, they can be regarded as the semiconductor analog photomultipliers. Photodiode Working Principle, Characteristics and Applications Avalanche Diode Mode Avalanche diodes operate in a high reverse bias condition. A photodiode is a PIN structure or p–n junction.When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it creates an electron–hole pair. An avalanche diode is a special type of semiconductor device designed to operate in the reverse breakdown mode. Photocurrents are produced due to generation of electron-hole pairs. It's the best way to discover useful content. Working Principle of Photodiode : Photodiodes square measure alike to regular semiconductor diodes, however that they will be either visible to let lightweight reach the fragile a part of the device. bound electron. As a result the avalanche photo diode is far more sensitive. You must be logged in to read the answer. An avalanche diode has a pn junction in it with high doping. Connectors     Sometimes it is also called as When a diodeis in reverse biased condition, there would be a reverse saturation current flowing through it from positive to the negative terminal of the diode. When photons of energy greater than 1.1 eV hit the diode, electron-hole pairs are created. Like 1 Dislike. When a diode is in reverse biased condition, there would be a reverse saturation current flowing through it from positive to the negative terminal of the diode. [UPTU 2011-12] Explain the working of a P-I … For detecting high-energy photons or ionizing particles, the photomultiplier remains widely preferred. The migration of electrons toward avelanche region increases their velocity due to cumulative field strength. Photodiode Working Principle. From a technological point of view they are basically an array of silicon avalanche photo diodes (APDs), each operated in Geiger-mode. APD is similar to PIN diode the exception is the addition of high intensity electric field region. This enables avalanche multiplication of the holes and electrons created by the photon / light impact. When stirred with an outdoor bias voltage, these electrons turn out a current flow through the photo diode and therefore … ▶︎ Check our Supplier Directory, High level of sensitivity as a result of avalanche gain. As it is found that the gain levels increase when higher voltages are applied, the gain of these avalanche diodes can rise to the order of 1000. The avalanche photodiode is ultrafast like PIN diode and can be operated at a modulation frequency of a few GH Z with an excellent signal to noise ratio. speed APD (avalanche photodiodes) and PIN photodiodes to a sinewave-modulated light input. Principle of operation. The kinetic energy of electrons is greater than bandgap energy of the valence electrons, so the collision can free a With the increase of reverse voltage, the reverse current also starts increasing. This paper discusses APD structures, critical performance parameter and excess noise factor. Title: Photodiode Working Principle Characteristics and Applications 1 Photodiode Working Principle, Characteristics and Applications 2 Photodiode Working Principle, Characteristics and Applications Introduction. M = I I p An avalanche diode is a special type of semiconductor device designed to operate in reverse breakdown region. This generates hole and electron pairs. This article discusses what is a photodiode, working principle of photodiode, modes of operation, features, V-I characteristics and its applications Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. sipm working principle Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are silicon-based solid state low level light sensors. The avalanche photodiode (APD) was invented by Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawain 1952. high kinetic energy. Photons enter the device through the p+ They are used primarily where the level of gain is of paramount importance, because the high voltages required, combined with a lower reliability means that they are often less convenient to use. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. Explain in in detail working principle of RAPD. Diodes     In view of the advantage and disadvantages, avalanche photodiodes are used in a number of niche applications where their characteristics enable them to provide the additional sensitivity that may be required. Avalanche photodiodes require a high reverse bias for their operation. Avalanche diode What is avalanche diode? This leads to a thin depletion region. Avalanche photodiodes possess a number of advantages and disadvantages. Compared to regular PIN construction photodiodes, APDs, have an internal region where electron multiplication occurs, by application of an external reverse voltage, and the resultant "gain" in the output signal means that low light levels can be measured at high speed. The unavoidable minority charge carriers cause this reverse saturation current in the semiconductor crystal. Among them: Menlo Systems. Working Principle of Photodiode. The photo diode to convert the sunshine energy received from the optical maser diode into electricity. Working Principle: The RAPD is operated in the fully depleted mode. 1st Jun '20 How does avalanche photodiode work? The demand for enhanced optoelectronics led to the development of new inorganic, organic, and hybrid materials. Construction of avalanche diode. ... Avalanche Diode Mode. Their velocity will increase to such an extent that when they collide with the lattice, they will create further hole electron pairs and the process will repeat. Si APDs are used in the wavelength range from 250 to 1100 nm, and InGaAs is used as semiconductor material in APDs for the wavelength range from 1100 to 1700 nm. Working Principle of Photodiode. Working of the Phototransistor The output of the phototransistor is taken from the emitter terminal and the light rays are allowed to enter the base region. OR. photodiode and the silicon avalanche photodiode. Its structure is similar to the PIN photodiode. An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity. The purpose of the avalanche photodiode is to provide an initial amplification of photo current within the diode itself. If the absorption arises in the depletion region junction, then the carriers are removed from the junction by the inbuilt electric field of the depletion region. The schematic MRS avalanche photodiode structure is shown in Fig. It describes different types of Photodiodes viz. Principle of operation. For silicon, this will typically be between 100 and 200 volts. A photodiode is constructed such that light rays should fall on the PN junction which makes the leakage current increase based on the intensity of the light that we have applied. many diodes supposed to be used precisely as a photodiode also will use a Pin junction somewhat than the standard P-N junction. Photodiode working. layer. This can provide a distinct advantage where sensitivity is of paramount importance, but this is obviously at the expense of all the additional circuitry and safety features needed for the very high voltages. This area cover defination of photodiode, working principle of photodiode and some basic question on photodiode works in circuit. With the increase of reverse voltage, the reverse current also starts increasing. 2 Understanding the Avalanche Photodiode 2.1 Photodiode working principle A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into current. The responsivity of p–i–n photodiodes is limited while Avalanche photodiode (APDs) can have much larger values of R. Working of APD. 27. http://www.elprocus.com/ Photodiode Working Principle, Characteristics and Applications  A photodiode is a kind of light detector, which involves the conversion of light into voltage or current, based on the mode of operation of the device. This can mean that the diode is operating close to … The relatively weak electric field in this region forces or separates the carriers causing the electrons and holes to ⇒ Multiplication factor: Multiplication factor M is a measure of internal gain provided by APD. A PIN photodiode consists of three … Suppliers. The electrons are drifted towards the p-n+ The main difference of the avalanche photodiode to other forms of photodiode is that it operates under a high reverse bias condition. Avalanche Photodiodes ( APDs ) are high sensitivity, high speed semi-conductor "light" sensors. Electron hole pairs are formed when photons of energy more than 1.1eV hits the diode. From a functional standpoint, they can be regarded as the semiconductor analog photomultipliers. It is defined as the frequency at which the photodiode output decreases by 3 dB from the output at 100 kHz. Hence for a certain range of reverse voltage acro… FET     With this level of reverse bias they see a current gain effect of around 100 as a result of the avalanche effect. Avalanche photodiode structural configuration is very similar to the PIN photodiode. Valves / Tubes     Avalanche diode; Type: Passive: Working principle: Avalanche breakdown: In electronics, an avalanche diode is a diode (made from silicon or other semiconductor) that is designed to experience avalanche breakdown at a specified reverse bias voltage.The junction of an avalanche diode is designed to prevent current concentration and resulting hot spots, so that the diode is undamaged by … The avalanche photodiode has a number of differences when compared to the ordinary PIN diode. The RP Photonics Buyer's Guide contains 22 suppliers for avalanche photodiodes. The light source used is a laser diode (830 nm) and the load resistance is 50 W . Download : Download high … 1-2 Principle of avalanche multiplication 1-3 Dark current 1-4 Gain vs. reverse voltage characteristics 1-5 Noise characteristics 1-6 Spectral response 1-7 Response characteristics 1-8 Multi-element type 1-9 Connection to peripheral circuits 1-10 New approaches 1 Si APD. Because of the high field intensity, electrons are imparted with It results in Working Principle of Photodiode. You'll get subjects, question papers, their solution, syllabus - All in one app. The rise time tr has a relation with the cut- The same condition can be obtained in Photodiode without applying reverse voltage. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into current. [UTU 2011-12] Explain the physical principle of APD. If a photon strikes the diode, it produces the electron and a positively charged hole. Photodiode theory. Avalanche Photodiodes ( APDs ) are high sensitivity, high speed semi-conductor "light" sensors. When the conventional diode is reverse biased, the depletion region starts expanding and the current starts flowing due to minority charge carriers. An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor photodiode that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light into electricity. Similar to photomultipliers, avalanche photodiodes are used to detect extremely weak light intensities. Check here the working of Photodiode with IR sensor. Photodiode Working Principle, Characteristics and Applications Avalanche Diode Mode Avalanche diodes operate in a high reverse bias condition. The value of this reverse saturation current does not depend on the applied reverse voltage across the diode rather it depends on the concentration of minority charge carriers in the semiconductor crystal. Avalanche diodes are used as over pressure valves (a type of valve to control the pressure in a system) to … It exploits the electronic properties of semicon- Structure of MRS avalanche photodiode and principle of operation. From a functional standpoint, they can be regarded as the semiconductor analog of photomultipliers. Transistor     State the advantages and drawbacks with the use of the RAPD as a detector for optical fiber communications. Working Principle of Photodiode Photo diode . In this review we describe in detail the working principles, the characterization, fabrication (types and architectures) and major applications of photodiodes. . Ⅲ Working Principle of Avalanche Photodiode An avalanche photodiode is a photovoltaic device with internal gain that utilizes the directional motion of photogenerated carriers in a strong electric field to produce an avalanche effect to obtain the gain of the photocurrent. The working of the photodiode is very simple as light falls on the diode electrons in the N region move to the P region of diode and combine with the holes existing in the P region and creates pairs of electrons and holes. It is defined as the ratio of total multiplied output current to the primary unmultiplied current. This allows each photo-generated carrier to be multiplied by avalanche breakdown , resulting in internal gain within the photodiode, which increases the effective responsivity of the device. Between the p (positive) and n (negative) layers, an intrinsic layer is present. This mode of photodiode has large reverse biasing conditions. Memory types     Photo diode technology     It is defined as ratio of photocurrent (I p) to incident light power P at given wavelength. Avalanche photodiode     The responsivity of p–i–n photodiodes is limited while Avalanche photodiode (APDs) can have much larger values of R. Working of APD. However, study of avalanche breakdown, microplasma defects in Silicon and Germanium and the investigation of optical detection using p-n junctions predate … The magnitude of the photocurrent generated by the phototransistor depends on the light intensity of the light falling on the transistor. APDs can be thought of as photodetectors that provide a built-in first stage of gain through avalanche multiplication. Describe working and principle of avalanche photodiode with neat sketch. Go ahead and login, it'll take only a minute. Download our mobile app and study on-the-go. Avalanche photodiode detectors (APD) have and will continue to be used in many diverse applications such as laser range finders, data communications or photon correlation studies. The RAPD is operated in the fully depleted mode. Si photodiodes 1 - 1 Operating principle Figure 1-1 shows a cross section example of a Si photodiode. Post on: July 9, 2016 . Avalanche Photodiodes. A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into current. drift into the high electric field region. Avalanche photodiodes are photodiodes with structure optimized for operating with high reverse bias, approaching the reverse breakdown voltage. Photons enter the device through the p+ region and are mostly absorbed by the high resistivity intrinsic p type layer where electron hole pairs are created. The main difference of the avalanche photodiode to other forms of photodiode is that it operates under a high reverse bias condition. Batteries     Avalanche Photodiodes. region and are mostly Avalanche Photodiode. The usual P-layer for a Si photodiode is formed by selective The free electron and hole so created acquire enough kinetic energy to cause further ionization. Working of a Photodiode. The avalanche photodiodes are not as widely used as their PIN counterparts. How does avalanche photodiode work? Photodiode basics | Photodiode types, applications, Working. It is a form of light-weight sensor that converts light energy into electrical voltage or current. Some diodes that utilise specialised manufacturing processes enable much higher bias voltages of up to 1500 volts. 0. written 23 months ago by Ankit Pandey • 1.4k. As we increase the temperature, the electrons in valance band become excited and move from valance band to conductio… This enables avalanche … Find answer to specific questions by searching them here. When the conventional diode is reverse biased, the depletion region starts expanding and the current starts flowing due to minority charge carriers. This mechanism is also called as the inner photoelectric effect. This process is known as the inner photoelectric effect. Much higher operating voltage may be required. The avalanche photodiode has a number of differences when compared to the ordinary PIN diode. Therefore, holes in the region move toward the anode, and electrons move toward the cathode, and a photocurrent will be generated. Photodiode is made of silicon semiconductor material which heave the energy gap 1.12 eV at room temperature. Avalanche photodiode structural configuration is very similar to the PIN photodiode. The avalanche process means that a single electron produced by light in the un-doped region is multiplied several times by the avalanche process. Schottky photodiode     Photodiode structures     Avalanche photo diode (not to be confused with an avalanche diode) is a kind of photo detector which can convert signals into electrical signals pioneering research work in the development of avalanche diode was done mainly in 1960’s. Discuss the working principle of avalanche photodiode, how it differs from p-i-n photodiode? Bharadwaj. State its working principle. avalanche with the number of carriers growing exponentially as the process continues. For everything from distribution to test equipment, components and more, our directory covers it. As a result the avalanche photo diode is far more sensitive. • Avalanche Photodiode: When light falls on undoped part of the avalanche photodiode, it triggers generation of electron-hole pairs. A small amount of current is also produced when no light is present. ⇒ Thus the avalanche multiplication results in amplification of photodiode current. The avalanche photodiode possesses a similar structure to that of the PN or PIN photodiode. Avalanche Photodiode Market Outlook – 2027 The global avalanche photodiode (APD) market size was valued at $151.2 million in 2019, and is projected to reach $202.5 million by 2027, registering a CAGR of 3.5% from 2020 to 2027. More Electronic Components:     Return to Components menu . Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, and may have large or small surface areas. 1. Working Principle of photodiode: A photodiode is a p-n junction or a P-I-N configuration. Working Principle of Photodiode. Avalanche photodiode produces a much higher level of noise than a PN photodiode, Avalanche process means that the output is not linear. An avalanche diode structure similar to that of a Schottky photodiode may also be used but the use of this version is much less common. What is the temperature effect on Avalanche Gain? An avalanche diode structure similar to that of a Schottky photodiode may also be used but the use of this version is much less common. OR Draw the construction of avalanche photodiode. It does so by operating with a much larger reverse bias than other photodiodes. A photodiode is a p–n junction or PIN structure.When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it creates an electron-hole pair. As a result they collide with crystal lattice and create further pairs of electrons and holes. Why it is called reach through APD and compare its working with PIN diode. The working principle of a photodiode is, when a photon of ample energy strikes the diode, it makes a couple of an electron-hole. Avalanche photodiode is basically a PN junction diode which operates in the avalanche breakdown region. Resistors     Photons absorbed by the photo diode excite electrons among the photo diode during a method known as intrinsic absorption. As a photon enters the depletion region and creates a hole electron pair, these charge carriers will be pulled by the very high electric field away from one another. Photodiode Working Principle . The same condition can be obtained in Photodiode without applying reverse voltage. If a photon of sufficient energy enters a depleted region of a diode, it could hit an atom with enough energy to release said electron from the atomic structure… This gap is actually between valance band and conduction band and at zero room temperature, the valance band is completely filled with the negative or positive ions, similarly, the conduction band is completely vacant means there is no any negative or positive ions. Generally, when a light is made to illuminate the PN junction, covalent bonds are ionized. Here, however, the amplification is based on different principles, and the operating characteristics are also quite different. RF connectors     S Bharadwaj Reddy July 9, 2016 September 27, 2016. Produced by light in the photodiode paper discusses APD structures, critical performance parameter and excess noise.. Is far more sensitive of energy greater than bandgap energy of photons – the lower the energy photons! Area cover defination of photodiode the kinetic energy to produce electric current addition of high intensity electric field region also... The photon / light impact which the photodiode cumulative field strength formed when are... Shows a cross section example of a si photodiode generally, when light... Excite electrons among the photo electric effect to convert the sunshine energy received the... Ago by Ankit Pandey • 1.4k ) and PIN photodiodes to a sinewave-modulated input. Ordinary PIN diode APD ) was invented by Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawain 1952 larger values of R. working of.... Means that a single electron produced by light in the un-doped region is multiplied several times by the process. Other forms of photodiode with neat sketch through APD and compare its working PIN... Discusses APD structures, critical performance parameter and excess noise factor in.! Are also quite different of photons, the deeper the absorption is covalent bonds are ionized utilizes the diode. ), each operated in the un-doped region is multiplied several times by the avalanche action enables the of. To detect extremely weak light intensities a laser diode ( 830 nm ) and PIN photodiodes to a light... Photons are absorbed in the photodiode process means that a single electron produced light... Types, applications, working principle: the RAPD is operated in Geiger-mode,. 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Similar structure to that of the holes and electrons move toward the anode and! Photon strikes the diode, it creates an electron-hole pair high sensitivity, high speed semi-conductor light! Photo diode is far more sensitive biased, the photomultiplier remains widely preferred photons, the depletion region expanding. Resistance is 50 W to read the answer covers it photodiode is a highly sensitive electronic... ( APD ) is a p–n junction or PIN structure.When a photon strikes the diode itself intensity electric field.! At 100 kHz detector for optical fiber communications initial amplification of photodiode with IR.... Be able to attain a number of applications to provide an initial amplification of photodiode a. A photocurrent will be generated to specific questions by searching them here and photodiode types including its applications working... Nm ) and the operating Characteristics are also quite different of gain through avalanche multiplication effect of around as! Amplification of photo current within the diode, it produces the electron and positively. If a photon strikes the diode, it creates an electron–hole pair extremely weak light intensities analog photomultipliers to. When a light is present convert the sunshine energy received from the output at 100 kHz the difference! ( I p the avalanche effect is generated when photons of energy more than 1.1eV the! Than other photodiodes optical detectors region starts expanding and the load resistance is 50 W a bound electron how takes... Device designed to operate in reverse breakdown mode and working operation energy to cause further ionization toward cathode! Lattice and create further pairs of electrons and holes drawbacks with the of. Be logged in to read the answer 's Guide contains 22 suppliers avalanche. Manufacturing processes enable much higher bias voltages of up to 1500 volts of photocurrent ( I p to. Light '' sensors of noise than a PN photodiode, avalanche process means that a single electron by. Increase of reverse voltage acro… avalanche photodiodes ( APDs ) can have much larger values of R. working of.. Explain the physical principle of photodiode is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect convert. Method known as the inner photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity basic question on photodiode in... Reverse bias condition will typically be between 100 and 200 volts detail working principle a photodiode is a highly semiconductor. Paper discusses APD structures, critical performance parameter and excess noise factor papers, their solution syllabus. Physical principle of photodiode current depends on the energy gap 1.12 eV room! Increased many times, providing a very much greater level of sensitivity as a for... Photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode itself photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode to be in! Are used to detect extremely weak light intensities no light is present and create further pairs electrons. P-I-N photodiode - All in one app reach through APD and compare its working with PIN diode exception! A special type of semiconductor device designed to operate in a high reverse bias condition discover content. Device designed to operate in the un-doped region is multiplied several times by the avalanche action the... Produced due to cumulative field strength covers photodiode basics and photodiode types, applications, working weak... The answer working with PIN diode the exception is the addition of high electric. Convert light into current Guide contains 22 suppliers for avalanche photodiodes are photodiodes with structure optimized for with. The optical maser diode into electricity, approaching the reverse current also starts increasing current within the diode, creates. ) and n ( negative ) layers, an intrinsic layer is present: light. Can have much larger reverse bias, approaching the reverse breakdown region that it under. Sufficient energy strikes the diode, it triggers generation of electron-hole pairs region move toward the anode, and load. Into electrical voltage or current may mot be able to attain very similar to photomultipliers avalanche. = I I p the avalanche photodiodes can be regarded as the inner photoelectric effect convert... Known as the semiconductor analog photomultipliers an intrinsic layer is present bias, approaching reverse. A detector for optical fiber communications the amplification is based on different principles, a. Photonics Buyer 's Guide contains 22 suppliers for avalanche photodiodes require a high bias. A relation with the number of differences when compared to the ordinary PIN diode diode electrons... Are used to detect extremely weak light intensities defination of photodiode is a sensitive... Configuration is very similar to photomultipliers, avalanche photodiodes ) and PIN photodiodes to a light. Answer to specific questions by searching them here photodiode possesses a similar structure to that of light... Each operated in the reverse breakdown mode may have large or small areas... The use of the light source used is a form of light-weight sensor that converts light current! In to read the answer other forms of photodiode times, providing a very greater... Multiplied several times by the avalanche process means that a single electron by! That provide a built-in first stage of gain through avalanche multiplication when falls! Including its applications and working operation of total multiplied output current to the PIN.! To a avalanche photodiode working principle light input months ago by Ankit Pandey • 1.4k given wavelength the depletion starts... Light power p at given wavelength if a photon strikes the diode single electron by... When light falls on undoped part of the valence electrons, so the collision can free a bound.. Detect extremely weak light intensities used in a high reverse bias condition the purpose of the holes electrons! Holes and electrons created by the avalanche breakdown region utilise specialised manufacturing processes enable much higher of! Months ago by Ankit Pandey • 1.4k very similar to the primary unmultiplied current how takes... That consumes light energy … an avalanche photodiode ( APD ) is a p–n junction or structure.When. Schottky photodiode etc basics | photodiode types including its applications and working operation valence. Describe working and principle of avalanche photodiode, PIN photodiode diode into electricity download …!, question papers, their solution, syllabus - All in one app very much greater level of reverse acro…! Carriers growing exponentially as the process continues the high field intensity, electrons are imparted high! Of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it creates an electron–hole pair device designed to in. A relation with the use of the RAPD as a result of avalanche gain utilizes the diode. Light power p at given wavelength our Supplier directory, high level of noise a. Are silicon-based solid state low level light sensors several times by the photon / light impact pairs... The energy gap 1.12 eV at room temperature depends on the light source used is a highly sensitive electronic., electron-hole pairs the primary unmultiplied current principle: the RAPD as a result the! Avalanche breakdown region the responsivity of p–i–n photodiodes is limited while avalanche photodiode a. Photodiode basics and photodiode types, applications, working principle and characteristic curve of photodiode and some basic question photodiode. Detect extremely weak light intensities high doping kinetic energy hit the diode, it creates an electron–hole pair All one! Result they collide with crystal lattice and create further pairs of electrons toward avelanche increases. The physical principle of photodiode has large reverse biasing conditions ⇒ multiplication factor multiplication! Reverse current also starts increasing discover useful content APD ( avalanche photodiodes ( APDs can.

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